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An atom bomb in Hiroshima, Japan

Korea gained independence in August, 1945 when Japan unconditionally surrendered from the Allied Force’s atomic attack. Due to the ideological conflict between the world powers, the US and the Soviet Union Army occupied the South and the North of the Korean peninsula which was divided at the 38th Parallel.
Subsequently, four occasions of unwilled conferences resulted in consequences which were far from the country’s desire of a unified nation and the opposed government of trusteeship was settled. From this point on, the partition of the Korean peninsula was firmly settled as two different governments were established on each side; the Republic of Korea in the South and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the North.

Trusteeship in Korea Peninsular
Form South Korea Government
Form North Korea Government


On June 25th, 1950, with the intent of communization, North Korea’s ruler Kim, Il-sung invaded the South equipped with newest weapons with assistance from the Soviet Union. After the outbreak of the war, the North occupied Seoul in 3 days and by one month they grew close to the line of defense in the Nakdong River showing much dominance.

By the success of the U.N. Force’s Incheon Landing Operation, the South regained Seoul, Wonsan, and Pyungyang, and it seemed like the unification was close at hand but due to intervention from the Chinese Forces, the war was prolonged. In efforts from both sides to occupy the 38th Parallel, an armistice issue was mentioned by the United States and the United Nations. And in July 1951, the first meeting was held in Gaesung.

The 38th parallel
Inspection of North Korea Militaries
Southward invasion

The UN proposed a change of location for the meeting on the ground that Gae-sung is located north of the 38th Parallel. The Soviet Union accepted the proposal and in October 1951, the Panmunjom was determined as the new conference location.

As a result, the Korean peninsula was divided into two separate nations without the consent of its own people, and the one and only Demilitarized Zone in the world was born.

The Incheon Landing Operation
Communist Chinese Forces intervention
The first day of Armistice